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Up to 17, wolves were poisoned in Canada between and In the mids, wolf bounties were dropped in the western provinces in favor of hiring provincial hunters.

Quebec's wolf bounties ended in and Ontario in Overall, 20, wolves were bountied between and in British Columbia, 12, between and in Alberta and 33, between and in Ontario. Unlike European wolf hunts which were usually reserved for the nobility , North American wolf hunts were partaken by ordinary citizens, nearly all of them possessing firearms, thus the extermination of wolves in the lower 48 states was carried out in far less time than in Europe.

In Norway, in , the government authorized a controversial wolf cull on the grounds that the animals were overpopulating and were responsible for the killing of more than sheep in The Norwegian authorities' original plans to kill 20 wolves were scaled down amid public outcry.

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As of , there were an estimated wolves in the Scandinavian population, with the large majority located in Sweden. In Spain, wolves are hunted north of the Duero river under strict conditions to control damage over livestock, but are strictly protected at the South margin. The European Union has exceptionally permitted Estonia, which has the highest wolf density in the EU, to continue wolf hunting as long as the overall numbers remain stable.

In , wolves were permitted to be culled, but only were actually caught. Under the Berne Convention wolves in France are listed as an endangered species, and killing them is illegal, though official culls are permitted to protect farm animals as long as there is no threat to the species in its entirety.

Wolf Sanctuary: The Wolves of Speedwell Forge by Chuck Rineer

Though wolf populations have increased in Ukraine, wolves remain unprotected there and can be hunted year-round by permit-holders. Bulgaria considers the wolf a pest animal and there is a bounty equivalent to two weeks average wages on their heads. With the exception of specimens in nature reserves, wolves in Belarus are largely unprotected. In Russia, government-backed wolf exterminations have been largely discontinued since the fall of the Soviet Union. As a result, their numbers have stabilized and are increasing, though they are still hunted legally.

His department currently licenses a national bag limit of up to 14, wolves annually, with permits given to hunt even within nature reserves. The government licensed a fluorine - acetate - barium compound and distributed it through hunting associations.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, wolf hunting in Kazakhstan has decreased in profit. Wolf hunting has become a fashionable pastime for Mongolia's new capitalist rich, particularly around Ulaanbaatar. It is currently illegal to shoot animals from helicopters or jeeps, though many rich hunters do not pay attention to this, including the lawmakers.

For Mongolian nomads, hunting wolves is more than a rich man's hobby because of evocations to the wolf's role in their mythology. Most post-Soviet Mongols have reverted to the traditional belief that to kill a wolf in January, or even to see one, brings good fortune for the whole year. In , the government of the People's Republic of China began plans to auction licenses for foreigners to hunt wild animals, including wolves which are the only carnivores on the list of animals that can be hunted. In Alaska , it is illegal to shoot a wolf with a rim-fire rifle because wolves are classified as big game.

In state biologists' goal was to have volunteer hunters kill to wolves by the time the predator-control season ended April 30, but high fuel prices and poor flying conditions kept hunters from meeting that goal. A closely controlled permit system is used in allowing aerial or airborne methods to remove wolves in designated areas.

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Wolf numbers are temporarily reduced in these areas, but are not permanently eliminated from any area. Many scientists believe that this artificial inflation of game populations is actually detrimental to both caribou and moose populations as well as the ecosystem as a whole; artificially boosted populations "could result in habitat destruction by moose and caribou, and ultimately, a crash in these populations".

This legislation has already received official support from nine former members of Alaska's Board of Game and Wildlife and conservation groups, including Defenders of Wildlife. According to Miller, "The state of Alaska has been operating an airborne hunting program that has blatantly ignored federal law, ignored Alaskans' opposition, ignored the science, and ignored even their own wildlife experts. It's time to ground this air assault on wolves. The PAW Act is urgently needed to close the loophole in federal law and protect our nation's wildlife from the unethical and unsportsmanlike practice of airborne hunting.

The bill would clarify under which conditions it is acceptable to use aircraft to aid in the management of wildlife. It would bar states from using aerial hunting to artificially boost game species when they are not at risk and to clarify the prohibition of harassing animals from planes which is part of the "land and shoot" hunting that is being utilized in Alaska. The PAW Act acknowledges the right of states to manage wildlife by clearly stating that wildlife agencies may use planes to respond to legitimate biological emergencies in wildlife populations.

It also states that aircraft may be used for animal control where land, livestock, water, pets, crops, or human health are at risk. Canada's total wolf population is about 30, Sentence needs rewording. Ontario ceased its wolf bounty system in , though retaining a year-round open season for wolves. After the gray wolf was removed from the endangered species list for the western great lakes region in January , the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources instituted a hunting season to manage the population. The grey wolf Canis lupus is the largest member of the canidae. Though once abundant over much of North America and Eurasia , the grey wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its habitat; in some regions it is endangered or threatened. Considered as a whole, however, the grey wolf is regarded as of least concern for extinction according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Wolf weight and size can vary greatly worldwide, tending to increase proportionally with latitude as predicted by Bergmann's Rule.

Wolves are usually hunted in heavy brush and are considered especially challenging to hunt, because of their elusive nature and sharp senses.

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However, wolves generally do not defend themselves as effectively as cougars or bears. A shot wolf must be approached with caution, as some wolves will play possum.

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John James Audubon wrote that young wolves typically show little resistance to being caught, whereas older, more experienced wolves will fight savagely. Wolves are commonly hunted for their fur. The color of a wolf's fur can vary, from the pure white of the largest, Alaskan wolves, through the range of reddish brown. Even the so-called "grey wolves" can include pure black pups in a litter, although grey is the most common color. Wolves have two kinds of hairs; an outer coat of long, stiff hairs called " guard hairs " and an " undercoat " of soft fur which grows thick in the winter and helps to insulate their bodies from the cold; this fur has the advantage of not freezing.

Pelts were usually made into cloaks or mittens, though not without hesitation, because of the wolf's strong odor. Sacred articles were wrapped in wolf skin and some tribes also wove wolf and American bison hair together in small blankets. Native American hunters used wolf pelts as disguises to allow them stalk close bison herds.

The bison were accustomed to having wolves walk among them and did not fear wolves unless they were vulnerable because of disease, injury, or if guarding young. Wolf pelts were also valuable as clothing, objects for trade and for ruffs or coats. They were also used in ritual dances and worn by some shamans , or medicine men. Females typically have smoother coats than males.

Teaching the World about Wolves.

Recent statistics from CITES indicate that 6,, wolf skins are internationally traded each year, with Canada, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia and China being the largest exporters, and the United States and Great Britain being the largest importers. The production of wolf pelts is still an important source of income for Arctic communities in Alaska and Canada. While not in the same class as high grade furbearers like beaver , otter or mink , the gray wolf's fur is nonetheless thick and durable, [71] and is primarily used for scarfs and the trimmings of women's garments, though it is occasionally used for jackets , short capes , coats , [72] mukluks and rugs.

These characteristics are mostly found in northern wolf populations, but gradually lessen further south in warmer climates. North American wolf pelts are among the most valuable, as they are silkier and fluffier than Eurasian peltries. Statistics from CITES indicate that 6,—7, wolf skins are internationally traded each year, with Canada, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia and China being the largest exporters, and the United States and Great Britain being the largest importers.

Overall, the harvesting of wolves for their fur has little impact on their population, as only the northern varieties whose numbers are stable are of commercial value. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome , wolf flesh was a main ingredient in unguents used to ward off evil. When applied in the form of a powder, the wolf unguent would be used to cure epilepsy , plague and gout. Powdered wolf bones were used to cure chest and back pains, broken bones and strained tendons. Wolf teeth, particularly the canines, would be perforated and used as talismans against evil spirits. This practice is thought to fall back to the Paleolithic, as shown by some prehistoric grave sites showing numerous wolf tooth charms.

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  5. It continues in some areas of rural France, where it is also thought that wearing a wolf tooth offers protection from wolf attacks. The tongue , when cooked with flour and honey , was traditionally used as a remedy for epilepsy and as a guarantee of good luck.