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Hawaii2 mitochondrial haplotypes are not clearly differentiated from North American haplotypes, with one shared haplotype FJB18M found at sampling locations across North America as well as on the islands of Maui and O'ahu S1 Table. These results suggest that the Hawaii2 lineage represents a more recent dispersal to Hawai'i.

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While we present the first examination of the colonization history and evolution of Hawaiian hoary bats, there are a number of opportunities for further research. First, the network and phylogenetic analyses were necessarily limited to the mtDNA data because most of our North American mitochondrial data were acquired via GenBank and we had access to only a limited number of tissue samples for generating new data from the continent.

This also explains why our nuclear intron data were limited to Hawaiian samples. The fact that both the Hawaii1 and Hawaii2 lineages are found in apparent sympatry on Maui and O'ahu also requires further examination. Because these clades are defined and differentiated solely by the mitochondrial COI gene, it is possible that the lack of congruent structure at the nuclear loci results from ongoing gene flow between the two populations S3 Table.

Given the recent timescales over which these dispersal events probably occurred, it is also possible that the lack of congruent structure results from incomplete lineage sorting at the nuclear loci [ 47 ].

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Future work examining patterns of structure at nuclear microsatellite loci or large numbers of single nucleotide polymorophism SNP markers would be informative for addressing these alternatives. Furthermore, the presence of the Hawaii1 lineage and, to a lesser extent, the Hawaii2 lineage on multiple islands suggests the occurrence of significant inter-island dispersal. Microsatellite genotyping and SNP typing, along with improved sampling of the older islands, would prove useful in quantifying rates of movement among islands.

Ongoing work by our research group is addressing these questions. We strongly caution against the interpretation of our estimates of N e as being indicative of the present-day census size for Hawaiian populations. If these populations were founded recently by individuals representative of the genetic diversity of the North American population, then diversity measures might well exceed that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium and our estimates of N e would thus be much larger than the current census size [ 48 , 49 ].

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As the founding population establishes and grows, it is possible that census size could eventually overtake effective size, but it is unclear how long that process would take. Understanding the conservation genetics of hoary bats in Hawai'i is particularly timely and important because L. Fish and Wildlife Service [ 50 ] as Endangered, and the species recovery plan [ 40 , 51 ] cites molecular genetics as an area of data deficiency needed for adaptive management.

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Given the threats to the recovery of Hawaiian hoary bats, most notably those from wind energy development, barbed wire fences [ 53 ], and habitat loss [ 54 ], there is an urgent need for additional work on the conservation genetics of hoary bats to understand, among other things, their estimated effective population sizes, dispersal abilities, and genetic differentiation among and within islands.

One area of importance is the resolution of potential evolutionary significant units that probably are represented by the Hawaii1 and Hawaii2 clades. The Endangered Species Act of 7 U. Increasing field efforts to census and sample individuals from populations on islands other than the island of Hawai'i, combined with multilocus genotyping [ 55 ] of these and additional specimens should help to further clarify the taxonomic status and ESU designation of this island mammal. Hawaiian hoary bats L. Significance values are provided for approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests.

We thank R.

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Bernard, Y. Castaneda, N. Cortez-Delgado, A. Hart, A. Hubancheva, K. Lahaela, A. Miles, K. Montoya-Aiona, R. Moseley, C. Todd, B.

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Yuen, and V. Zrncic for assistance with field work in Hawai'i. Tissue collection from carcasses was facilitated by R. Breeden, M. Craig, F. Duvall, M. Hagemann, and T. Kirby and J. Pontow assisted with cloning and sequencing of nuclear loci. Alvarez, G. Amato, L. Ammerman, R. Benedict, R. Hersh, C. Lausen, K. Miner, H.

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Rice, N. Simmons, and C. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.

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Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The Hawaiian islands are an extremely isolated oceanic archipelago, and their fauna has long served as models of dispersal in island biogeography. Introduction The Hawaiian islands are among the most isolated archipelagos in the world, and their native flora and fauna have served as long-standing models for island biogeography and adaptive radiation [ 1 ].

We use multiple molecular markers mitochondrial and nuclear and analytical approaches Bayesian and maximum likelihood to test the following specific hypotheses: Hawaiian L. Download: PPT. Ethics statement All live animal sampling was carried out in accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. Results Historical biogeography of hoary bats in Hawai'i A maximum parsimony network was constructed for the mitochondrial dataset of 47 unique haplotypes Fig 2. Table 2. Historical demography of Hawaiian populations Extended Bayesian skyline analyses supported different demographic histories for the Hawaii1 and Hawaii2 populations of L.

Fig 3. Extended Bayesian skyline plots for Hawaiian populations. Discussion Biogeography of Hawaiian hoary bats We show that Hawaiian populations of hoary bats derive from at least two independent dispersal events, both originating from populations in North America. Future work While we present the first examination of the colonization history and evolution of Hawaiian hoary bats, there are a number of opportunities for further research. Implications for hoary bat conservation We strongly caution against the interpretation of our estimates of N e as being indicative of the present-day census size for Hawaiian populations.

Supporting Information. S1 Fig. Maximum likelihood phylogeny for sampled L. S2 Fig. Constraint topologies analyzed in the topological tests.

S1 Table. Location information for redundant COI haplotypes used in the network analysis. S2 Table. Results of tests of alternative tree topologies. S3 Table. Acknowledgments We thank R. References 1. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence. Current Biology — Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution — Evolution — Nature Communications 5: e View Article Google Scholar 8.

Mammalian Species 1—5. View Article Google Scholar 9.

Hayman RW American bats reported in Iceland. Journal of Mammalogy — View Article Google Scholar Journal of Zoology — Simmons NB Order Chiroptera. Morales JC, Bickham JW Molecular systematics of the genus Lasiurus Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae based on restriction-site maps of the mitochondrial ribosomal genes.

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Jacobs DS Morphological divergence in an insular bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. Functional Ecology — American Midlands Naturalist — Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation. New York: Springer Science Press. Worthington Wilmer J, Barratt E A non-lethal method of tissue sampling for genetic studies of chiropterans.